Common Glossary

ASX DVD M3U MPEG1 Region codes VQF

ID3 is a small piece of information stored physically inside the MP3 file (in the beginning or in the end of the file, depends on ID3's version). ID3 tags can contain various information about the MP3, like album name, song name, artist, original artist, genre, composer, releasing year, additional comment fields, etc.. Nowadays ID3s are de facto in audio world and they can be added to most of the audio formats and even to certain video formats in order to provide additional information of the file.

ISO refers also to a CD or DVD image (not picture..) file with an extension of ".iso". The extension comes from the full name of the CD-ROM and DVD-ROM file system specification, ISO 9660. Just like other CD/DVD image formats, ISO is a file that contains full content of the disc, including every single track, directory, file and information about the structure of the disc. Normally ISO files are being used to replicate existing CD/DVD discs, transfer those discs over the network to other location (or to other person) and burn back to CD/DVD which then would be an identical replica of the original disc.

M3U is a special type of metafile playlist that is used with MP3 files that have an .mp3 file extension. The .m3u files list one MP3 or other media file on each line, normally with full path or URL to the file. If the .m3u file is loaded to an MP3 player, the player normally plays the list of media files in the order they are listed in the playlist (unless options such as "randomize" have been selected in the MP3 player).

M4A: The audio file format used by Apple in their popular iTunes Music Store often appears on your system with the ".M4A" filename extension. M4A can produce better audio quality than MP3 using less physical space for the files.

M4P format is "protected AAC". It is a format of purchased music that can be listened to only through the iTunes or an iPod. You can remove Drm protection and convert M4P to MP3 legally on Windows PC and Mac computer easily.

MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A MIDI file doesn't contain actual audio data, but rather contains commands that let MIDI-capable synthesizers re-create a specific musical passage. The MIDI protocol has been used for years as a way for electronic musical instruments (like digital keyboards and sequencers) to communicate with each other. Computer sound cards typically feature the ability to interpret MIDI files into music. Since they don't actually contain the music itself, but rather the commands used to re-create music, MIDI files are a lot smaller than audio files like MP3s, WMAs, or WAVs. MIDI files are small and manageable enough that it's not uncommon to find them embedded in web pages, adding a sonic element to the surfing experience. MIDI files usually appear with the ".MID" filename extension.

miniDV is the most popular digital camcorder format at the moment. miniDV is a video cassette designed for use in miniDV digital camcorders. The picture quality of digital video (DV) recorded on a miniDV cassette is basically identical or better to the quality of DV recorded on a Hi8 or 8mm cassette by a Digital8 camcorder. miniDV can have up to 530 lines of video resolution for some camcorder models. However, miniDV tapes are smaller which allows for smaller camcorders. miniDV tapes are available in lengths of 30 and 60 minutes (plus, recording in LP mode lets you extend total recording time with a 60-minute tape to 90 minutes).

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miniDVD is a DVD video written onto a CD-R(W) instead of a DVD disc. miniDVD is also sometimes called cDVD. A miniDVD only fits about 15 minutes of DVD quality video on a 650MB CD-R(W). Basically miniDVD is a regular CD that has the same structure as regular DVD-Video has. Most of the standalone DVD players can be fooled to think that the disc inserted is a regular DVD-Video disc and to play it. But, one DVD quality movie (about 4GB) ends up taking 6 or more CDs (about 700MB per CD), Therefor most of the people don't use miniDVDs, but use VCDs, SVCDs or their varieties.

MOV is a file extension used by the QuickTime-wrapped files. QuickTime Content (.mov, .qt), developed by Apple Computer, is a file format for storing and playing back movies with sound. This flexible format isn't limited to Macintosh operating systems. It's also commonly used in Windows systems, and other types of computing platforms.

MP2 stands for MPEG Audio Layer II or MPEG2 Audio, which used on VCDs, SVCDs and can be used DVDs.

MP3 stands for MPEG1 (or MPEG2) Audio Layer III. Too often people refer MP3 as MPEG3, which is incorrect, because such format doesn't even exist. MP3 is a popular compression format used for audio files on computers and portable devices. It is a method to store good quality audio into small files by using psychoacoustics in order to get rid of the data from the audio that most of the humans can't hear. MP3's bitrates vary from 8kbps to 320kbps. A typical MP3 file encoded at 128kbps is near CD quality. MP3 audio is increasingly being used in video production coupled with various MPEG4 video codecs like divx.

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MP3 ID3 Tag is information stored at the end of an MP3 file. The tag can contain information about the Title/Songname, Artist, Album, Year, Comment, and Genre in version 1 and also Track in version 1.1. A proposed Version 2 is out which would be extendable to include more information and pictures.

MPEG stands for Moving Picture Expert Group in charge of the development of standards for coded representation of digital audio and video. There are several audio/video formats which bear this group's name, such as MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4.

MPEG1 format is often used in digital cameras and camcorders to capture small, easily transferable motion video clips. It is also the compression format used to create Video CDs. In addition, The well-known MP3 audio format is part of the MPEG1 codec.

MPEG2 format, a video standard developed by MPEG group, is often used in digital TVs, DVD movies and in SVCDs. It is not a successor for MPEG1, but an addition instead. both of these formats have their own purposes in life. MPEG1 is meant for medium-bandwidth usage and MPEG2 is meant for high-bandwidth/broadband usage.

MPEG4, the latest compression method standardized by MPEG group, is used for both streaming and downloadable web content, and is also the video format employed by a growing number of portable video recorders. One of the best-known MPEG4 encoders is DivX which since version 5 has been fully standard-compliant MPEG4 encoder.

MPEG7 doesn't itself offer any new encoding features and it is not meant for representing audio/video content, unlike its siblings MPEG1, MPEG2 and MPEG4. Instead, it offers metadata information for audio and video files, allowing searching and indexing of audio/video data based on the information about the content instead of searching the actual content bitstream. MPEG7 is based on XML and therefor is universal and all the existing tools that support XML parsing should be able to read the data as well, provided that they can ignore binary parts of the file. MPEG7 is not used at the moment, but it is under serious development and standardization process at the moment and hopefully we see first fully featured MPEG-7 tools within few years.

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NTSC stands for National Television System Committee. NTSC is a color TV standard developed in the United States in 1953 by National Television System Committee. NTSC is used in most of the American continent countries and in various Asian countries. Rest of the world uses either some variety of PAL or SECAM standards. NTSC runs on 525 lines/frame and it's vertical frequency is 60Hz. NTSC's framerate is 29,97 frames/sec.

Ogg is the umbrella for a group of several related multimedia and signal processing projects that are open source and royalty free.

Ogg Vorbis is an "open-source" digital audio compression format. like MP3, It is a "lossy" compression system, removing frequencies deemed inaudible. Both formats offer variable-bitrate encoding options, for better efficiency. But the algorithms Ogg Vorbis uses to decide which information to discard differ from those used by MP3. Proponents claim that the Ogg Vorbis format outperforms MP3, producing files that are significantly smaller than MP3s of similar sound quality (or files that sound better than similarly sized MP3s).

PAL, was introduced in the early 1960's in Europe , stands for Phase Alternating Line. It has better resolution than in NTSC, having 625 lines/frame, but the framerate is slightly lower, being 25 frames/sec. PAL is used in most of the western European countries (except France , where SECAM is used instead), Australia , some countries of Africa , some countries of South America and in some Asian countries.

QuickTime is a file format for storing and playing back movies with sound. Though developed and supported primarily by Apple Computer, this flexible format isn't limited to Macintosh operating systems. it's also commonly used in Windows systems, and other types of computing platforms. In Windows, QuickTime files usually appear with the ".MOV" filename extension. Since 2002, Apple has started using MPEG4 video encoding on its QT streams, producing much better, if not excellent, video quality.

RA stands for Real Audio. RA is a Real Media audio file extension, indicating a file readable by the RealOne Media Player.

RM stands for Real Media. Real Media is one of the most popular formats for streaming content on the Internet, RealMedia includes the RealAudio codec for sound clips and RealVideo codec for movies. RealAudio and RealVideo files are often given the common RealMedia ".RM" file extension. RealMedia files are often heavily compressed so they can stream over dial-up Internet connections.

RMVB stands for Real Media Variable Bitrate. RMVB is commonly used to contain Real Video 9 and RA (Real Audio).

RealVideo is a streaming video format developed by RealNetworks. RealVideo is probably the most popular streaming video format in the world, although its quality is horrible if you compare it to MPEG4-based formats like DivX or WMV.

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